Aug 08, 2017

Use EITHER the first row of input data: frequency, dielectric constant and conductivity, OR the second row of input data: wavelength and complex refractive index

A plane electromagnetic wave propagating in a homogeneous, isotropic and linear medium, with possible loss, is characterized by transverse electric and magnetic field field vectors E and H. E and H are mutually orthogonal and are both orthogonal to the direction of propagation. Taking the direction of propagation as z, and with E along the x direction, the plane wave field components are Ex and Hy. The propagation constant

Alternately, a complex refractive index

The charts below show the real values of Ex(z,t), Hy(z,t) (omitting the Re) and Sz(z,t) at a fixed value of z (different values of z simply shift the overall common phase of both fields and lowers the amplitudes at the same rate). It demonstrates the phase relationship between Ex(t) and Hy(t) for different values of relative loss and the instantaneous Poynting vector amplitude Sz(t) and its time averaged constant value SzTA. The peak amplitute of Ex is taken as 1 and the value of Hy with relative phase determined by complex

The graph below shows the calculated EM plane wave properties over a frequency range of 1 Hz to 10 GHz for typical salt water (assuming the dielectric constant and permittivity are constant over this range). The transition from good conductor (left part), where the phase velocity is much lower and the phase angle of Z is 45 °, to dielectric behaviour at the right where the phase velocity approaches c/9 and the attenuation approaches a fixed and maximum value, is evident with the transition region occurring at about 1 GHz. Over this same entire frequency range, a typical metal like Cu would behave as a good conductor.

**Electromagnetic Theory**, J. Stratton, 1941, McGraw Hill, pp. 273-278